We have designed this Ordinary level physics to thoroughly help students preparing for O’Level Physics exams like WAEC and JAMB. This particular online Physics subject is designed to replace or augment secondary school secondary school Physics theory lessons and prepare the student to comfortably pass exams especially WAEC. This is a work in progress.
We have partnered with Rice University’s Open Syntax College Physics text book where we got the texts of this lesson. ( “Download for free at https://openstax.org/details/books/College-Physics.” ).
A lot was drawn from WAEC syllabus. According to WAEC:
The syllabus is evolved from the Senior Secondary School teaching syllabus and is intended to indicate the scope of the course for Physics examination.
It is structured with the conceptual approach. The broad concepts of matter, position, motion and time; energy; waves; fields; Atomic and Nuclear Physics, electronics are considered and each concept forms a part on which other sub-concepts are further based.
The aims of the syllabus are to enable candidates
- acquire proper understanding of the basic principles and applications of Physics;
- develop scientific skills and attitudes as pre-requisites for further scientific activities;
- recognize the usefulness, and limitations of scientific method to appreciate its applicability ion other disciplines and in every life;
- develop abilities, attitudes and skills that encourage efficient and safe practice;
- develop scientific attitudes such as accuracy, precision, objectivity, integrity, initiative and inventiveness.
The following activities appropriate to Physics will be tested:
- Acquisition of knowledge and understanding:
Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of
- Scientific phenomena, facts laws, definitions, concepts and theories;
- Scientific vocabulary, terminology and conventions (including symbols, quantities and units);
- The use of scientific apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety;
- Scientific quantities and their determinations;
- Scientific and technological applications with their social economic and environmental implications.
- Information Handling and Problem-solving
Candidates should be able, using visual, oral, aural and written (including symbolic, diagrammatic, graphical and numerical) information to
- locate select, organize and present information from a variety of sources including everyday experience;
- analyse and evaluate information and other data;
- use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences;
- present reasonable explanations for natural occurrences, patterns and relationships;
- make predictions from data.
- Experimental and Problem-Solving Techniques Candidates should be able to
- follow instructions;
- carry out experimental procedures using apparatus;
- make and record observations, measurements and estimates with due regard to precision, accuracy and units;
- interpret, evaluate and report on observations and experimental data;
- identify problems, plan and carry out investigations, including the selection of techniques, apparatus, measuring devices and materials;
- evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements;
- state and explain the necessary precautions taken in experiments to obtain accurate results.
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
There will be THREE papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1: Will consist of fifty multiple choice questions lasting 1¼ hours and carrying 50 marks.
PAPER 2: Will consist of two sections, Sections A and B lasting1½ hours and carrying 60 marks.
Section A – Will comprise seven short-structured questions. Candidates will be required to answer any five questions for a total of 15 marks. Section B – Will comprise five essay questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any three for 45 marks.
PAPER 3: Will be a practical test for school candidates or an alternative to practical work paper for private candidates. Each version of the paper will comprise three questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any two in 2¾ hours for 50 marks.
It is important that candidates are involved in practical activities in covering this syllabus. Candidates will be expected to answer questions on the topics set in the column headed ‘ TOPIC’. The ‘NOTES’ are intended to indicate the scope of the questions which will be set but they are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.
NOTE: Questions will be set in S.I. units. However, multiples or sub-multiples of the units may be used.
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- Lectures 42
- Quizzes 0
- Duration 50 hours
- Skill level All levels
- Language English
- Students 21
- Assessments Yes
PART 1 INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE & TIME
Concepts of Matter
Simple structure of matter should be discussed. Three physics states of matter, namely solid, liquid and gas should be treated. Evidence of the particle nature of matter e.g. Brownian motion experiment, Kinetic theory of matter. Use of the theory to explain; states of matter (solid, liquid and gas), pressure in a gas, evaporation and boiling; cohesion, adhesion, capillarity. Crystalline and amorphous substances to be compared (Arrangement of atoms in crystalline structure to be described e.g. face centred, body centred.
Fundamental and derived quantities and units
Length, mass, time, electric current luminous intensity, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance as examples of fundamental quantities and m, kg, s, A, cd, K and mol as their respective units. Volume, density and speed as derived quantities and m3, kgm-3 and ms-1 as their respective units.
Position, distance and displacement
Position of objects in space using the X,Y,Z axes should be mentioned. Use of string, metre rule, vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge. Degree of accuracy should be noted. Metre (m) as unit of distance. Use of compass and a protractor. Graphical location and directions by axes to be stressed.
Mass and weight
Use of lever balance and chemical/beam balance to measure mass and spring balance to measure weight. Mention should be made of electronic/digital balance. Kilogram (kg) as unit of mass and newton (N) as unit of weight.
The use of heart-beat, sand-clock, ticker-timer, pendulum and stopwatch/clock. Second(s) as unit of time.
Fluid at rest
Experimental determination for solids and liquids. Concept and definition of pressure. Pascal’s principle, application of principle to hydraulic press and car brakes. Dependence of pressure on the depth of a point below a liquid surface. Atmospheric pressure. Simple barometer, manometer, siphon, syringe and pump. Determination of the relative density of liquids with U-tube and Hare’s apparatus. Identification of the forces acting on a body partially or completely immersed in a fluid. Use of the principle to determine the relative densities of solids and liquids. Establishing the conditions for a body to float in a fluid. Applications in hydrometer, balloons, boats, ships, submarines etc.
Only qualitative treatment is required. Illustration should be given for the various types of motion. Numerical problems on co-linear motion may be set. Force as cause of motion. Push and pull These are field forces namely; electric and magnetic attractions and repulsions; gravitational pull. Frictional force between two stationary bodies (static) and between two bodies in relative motion (dynamic). Coefficients of limiting friction and their determinations. Advantages of friction e.g. in locomotion, friction belt, grindstone. Disadvantages of friction e.g reduction of efficiency, wear and tear of machines. Methods of reducing friction; e.g. use of ball bearings, rollers, streamlining and lubrication. Definition and effects. Simple explanation as extension of friction in fluids. Fluid friction and its application in lubrication should be treated qualitatively. Terminal velocity and its determination. Experiments with a string tied to a stone at one end and whirled around should be carried out to (i) demonstrate motion in a Vertical/horizontal circle. (i) show the difference between angular speed and velocity. (ii) Draw a diagram to illustrate centripetal force. Banking of roads in reducing sideways friction should be qualitatively discussed.
Speed and velocity
Metre per second (ms-1) as unit of speed/velocity. Ticker-timer or similar devices should be used to determine speed/velocity. Definition of velocity as ∆ s ∆t. Determination of instantaneous speed/velocity from distance/displacement-time graph and by calculation. Unit of acceleration as ms-2 Ticker timer or similar devices should be used to determine acceleration. Definition of acceleration as ∆ v ∆t . Determination of acceleration and displacement from velocity-time graph Use of equations to solve numerical problems.
Scalars and vectors
Mass, distance, speed and time as examples of scalars. Weight, displacement, velocity and acceleration as examples of vectors. Use of force board to determine the resultant of two forces. Obtain the resultant of two velocities analytically and graphically. Torque/Moment of force. Simple treatment of a couple, e.g. turning of water tap, corkscrew and steering wheel.) Use of force board to determine resultant and equilibrant forces. Treatment should include resolution of forces into two perpendicular directions and composition of forces Parallelogram of forces. Triangle of forces. Should ne treated experimentally. Treatment should include stable, unstable and neutral equilibra. Use of a loaded test-tube oscillating vertically in a liquid, simple pendulum, spiral spring and bifilar suspension to demonstrate simple harmonic motion.
Simple harmonic motion
Relate linear and angular speeds, linear and angular accelerations. Experimental determination of ‘g’ with the simple pendulum and helical spring. The theory of the principles should be treated but derivation of the formula for ‘g’ is not required Simple problems may be set on simple harmonic motion. Mathematical proof of simple harmonic motion in respect of spiral spring, bifilar suspension and loaded test-tube is not required.
Newton’s laws of motion:
Distinction between inertia mass and weight Use of timing devices e.g. ticker-timer to determine the acceleration of a falling body and the relationship when the accelerating force is constant. Linear momentum and its conservation. Collision of elastic bodies in a straight line. Applications: recoil of a gun, jet and rocket propulsions.