
PART 1 INTERACTION OF MATTER, SPACE & TIME 1

Lecture1.1

Lecture1.2


Concepts of Matter 1
Simple structure of matter should be discussed. Three physics states of matter, namely solid, liquid and gas should be treated. Evidence of the particle nature of matter e.g. Brownian motion experiment, Kinetic theory of matter. Use of the theory to explain; states of matter (solid, liquid and gas), pressure in a gas, evaporation and boiling; cohesion, adhesion, capillarity. Crystalline and amorphous substances to be compared (Arrangement of atoms in crystalline structure to be described e.g. face centred, body centred.

Lecture2.1

Lecture2.2

Lecture2.3


Fundamental and derived quantities and units 0
Length, mass, time, electric current luminous intensity, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance as examples of fundamental quantities and m, kg, s, A, cd, K and mol as their respective units. Volume, density and speed as derived quantities and m3, kgm3 and ms1 as their respective units.

Lecture3.1

Lecture3.2


Position, distance and displacement 0
Position of objects in space using the X,Y,Z axes should be mentioned. Use of string, metre rule, vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge. Degree of accuracy should be noted. Metre (m) as unit of distance. Use of compass and a protractor. Graphical location and directions by axes to be stressed.

Lecture4.1

Lecture4.2

Lecture4.3

Lecture4.4

Lecture4.5


Mass and weight 0
Use of lever balance and chemical/beam balance to measure mass and spring balance to measure weight. Mention should be made of electronic/digital balance. Kilogram (kg) as unit of mass and newton (N) as unit of weight.

Lecture5.1


Time 0
The use of heartbeat, sandclock, tickertimer, pendulum and stopwatch/clock. Second(s) as unit of time.

Lecture6.1

Lecture6.2


Fluid at rest 5
Experimental determination for solids and liquids. Concept and definition of pressure. Pascal’s principle, application of principle to hydraulic press and car brakes. Dependence of pressure on the depth of a point below a liquid surface. Atmospheric pressure. Simple barometer, manometer, siphon, syringe and pump. Determination of the relative density of liquids with Utube and Hare’s apparatus. Identification of the forces acting on a body partially or completely immersed in a fluid. Use of the principle to determine the relative densities of solids and liquids. Establishing the conditions for a body to float in a fluid. Applications in hydrometer, balloons, boats, ships, submarines etc.

Lecture7.1

Lecture7.2

Lecture7.3

Lecture7.4

Lecture7.5

Lecture7.6


Motion 7
Only qualitative treatment is required. Illustration should be given for the various types of motion. Numerical problems on colinear motion may be set. Force as cause of motion. Push and pull These are field forces namely; electric and magnetic attractions and repulsions; gravitational pull. Frictional force between two stationary bodies (static) and between two bodies in relative motion (dynamic). Coefficients of limiting friction and their determinations. Advantages of friction e.g. in locomotion, friction belt, grindstone. Disadvantages of friction e.g reduction of efficiency, wear and tear of machines. Methods of reducing friction; e.g. use of ball bearings, rollers, streamlining and lubrication. Definition and effects. Simple explanation as extension of friction in fluids. Fluid friction and its application in lubrication should be treated qualitatively. Terminal velocity and its determination. Experiments with a string tied to a stone at one end and whirled around should be carried out to (i) demonstrate motion in a Vertical/horizontal circle. (i) show the difference between angular speed and velocity. (ii) Draw a diagram to illustrate centripetal force. Banking of roads in reducing sideways friction should be qualitatively discussed.

Lecture8.1

Lecture8.2

Lecture8.3

Lecture8.4

Lecture8.5

Lecture8.6

Lecture8.7


Speed and velocity 3
Metre per second (ms1) as unit of speed/velocity. Tickertimer or similar devices should be used to determine speed/velocity. Definition of velocity as ∆ s ∆t. Determination of instantaneous speed/velocity from distance/displacementtime graph and by calculation. Unit of acceleration as ms2 Ticker timer or similar devices should be used to determine acceleration. Definition of acceleration as ∆ v ∆t . Determination of acceleration and displacement from velocitytime graph Use of equations to solve numerical problems.

Scalars and vectors 3
Mass, distance, speed and time as examples of scalars. Weight, displacement, velocity and acceleration as examples of vectors. Use of force board to determine the resultant of two forces. Obtain the resultant of two velocities analytically and graphically. Torque/Moment of force. Simple treatment of a couple, e.g. turning of water tap, corkscrew and steering wheel.) Use of force board to determine resultant and equilibrant forces. Treatment should include resolution of forces into two perpendicular directions and composition of forces Parallelogram of forces. Triangle of forces. Should ne treated experimentally. Treatment should include stable, unstable and neutral equilibra. Use of a loaded testtube oscillating vertically in a liquid, simple pendulum, spiral spring and bifilar suspension to demonstrate simple harmonic motion.

Lecture10.1

Lecture10.2

Lecture10.3


Simple harmonic motion 5
Relate linear and angular speeds, linear and angular accelerations. Experimental determination of ‘g’ with the simple pendulum and helical spring. The theory of the principles should be treated but derivation of the formula for ‘g’ is not required Simple problems may be set on simple harmonic motion. Mathematical proof of simple harmonic motion in respect of spiral spring, bifilar suspension and loaded testtube is not required.

Lecture11.1

Lecture11.2

Lecture11.3

Lecture11.4

Lecture11.5


Newton’s laws of motion: 3
Distinction between inertia mass and weight Use of timing devices e.g. tickertimer to determine the acceleration of a falling body and the relationship when the accelerating force is constant. Linear momentum and its conservation. Collision of elastic bodies in a straight line. Applications: recoil of a gun, jet and rocket propulsions.

Lecture12.1

Lecture12.2

Lecture12.3

Fundamental and derived quantities and units – S.I Units
The range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is immense. From the incredibly short lifetime of a nucleus to the age of the Earth, from the tiny sizes of subnuclear particles to the vast distance to the edges of the known universe, from the force exerted by a jumping flea to the force between Earth and the Sun, there are enough factors of 10 to challenge the imagination of even the most experienced scientist.
Giving numerical values for physical quantities and equations for physical principles allows us to understand nature much more deeply than does qualitative description alone. To comprehend these vast ranges, we must also have accepted units in which to express them. And we shall find that (even in the potentially mundane discussion of meters, kilograms, and seconds) a profound simplicity of nature appears—all physical quantities can be expressed as combinations of only four fundamental physical quantities: length, mass, time, and electric current.
We define a physical quantity either by specifying how it is measured or by stating how it is calculated from other measurements. For example, we define distance and time by specifying methods for measuring them, whereas we define average speed by stating that it is calculated as distance traveled divided by time of travel.
Measurements of physical quantities are expressed in terms of units, which are standardized values. For example, the length of a race, which is a physical quantity, can be expressed in units of meters (for sprinters) or kilometers (for distance runners).
Without standardized units, it would be extremely difficult for scientists to express and compare measured values in a meaningful way. (See Figure 1.17.)
S.I. UNIT
There are two major systems of units used in the world: SI units (also known as the metric system) and English units (also known as the customary or imperial system). English units were historically used in nations once ruled by the British Empire and are still widely used in the United States. Virtually every other country in the world now uses SI units as the standard; the metric system is also the standard system agreed upon by scientists and mathematicians.
The acronym “SI” is derived from the French Système International.
SI Units: Fundamental quantity and Derived Units
Table 1.1 gives the fundamental SI units that are used throughout this textbook. This text uses nonSI units in a few applications where they are in very common use, such as the measurement of blood pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Whenever nonSI units are discussed, they will be tied to SI units through conversions.
Table 1.1 Fundamental SI Units
Length  Mass  Time  Electric Current 
meter (m)  kilogram (kg)  second (s)  ampere (A) 
Fundamental Units
It is an intriguing fact that some physical quantities are more fundamental than others and that the most fundamental physical quantities can be defined only in terms of the procedure used to measure them. The units in which they are measured are thus called fundamental units. In this textbook, the fundamental physical quantities are taken to be length, mass, time, and electric current. (Note that electric current will not be introduced until much later in this text.)
Derived Units
All other physical quantities, such as force and electric charge, can be expressed as algebraic combinations of length, mass, time, and current (for example, speed is length divided by time); these units are called derived units.
Units of Time, Length, and Mass: The Second, Meter, and Kilogram
The Second
The SI unit for time, the second(abbreviated s), has a long history. For many years it was defined as 1/86,400 of a mean solar day. More recently, a new standard was adopted to gain greater accuracy and to define the second in terms of a nonvarying, or constant, physical phenomenon (because the solar day is getting longer due to very gradual slowing of the Earth’s rotation).
Cesium atoms can be made to vibrate in a very steady way, and these vibrations can be readily observed and counted. In 1967 the second was redefined as the time required for 9,192,631,770 of these vibrations. (See Figure 1.18.)
Accuracy in the fundamental units is essential, because all measurements are ultimately expressed in terms of fundamental units and can be no more accurate than are the fundamental units themselves.
The Meter
The SI unit for length is the meter (abbreviated m); its definition has also changed over time to become more accurate and precise. The meter was first defined in 1791 as 1/10,000,000 of the distance from the equator to the North Pole. This measurement was improved in 1889 by redefining the meter to be the distance between two engraved lines on a platinumiridium bar now kept near Paris.
By 1960, it had become possible to define the meter even more accurately in terms of the wavelength of light, so it was again redefined as 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of orange light emitted by krypton atoms. In 1983, the meter was given its present definition (partly for greater accuracy) as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second. (See Figure 1.19.)
This change defines the speed of light to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second. The length of the meter
will change if the speed of light is someday measured with greater accuracy.
The Kilogram
The SI unit for mass is the kilogram (abbreviated kg); it is defined to be the mass of a platinumiridium cylinder kept with the old meter standard at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris. Exact replicas of the standard kilogram are also kept at the United States’ National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST, located in Gaithersburg, Maryland outside of Washington D.C., and at other locations around the world. The determination of all other masses can be ultimately traced to a comparison with the standard mass.
Electric current and its accompanying unit, the ampere, will be introduced in Introduction to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm’s Law when electricity and magnetism are covered. The initial modules in this textbook are concerned with mechanics, fluids, heat, and waves. In these subjects all pertinent physical quantities can be expressed in terms of the fundamental units of length, mass, and time.
Table 1.2 Metric Prefixes for Powers of 10 and their Symbols
Prefix  Symbol  Value[1]  Example (some are approximate)  
exa  E  1018  exameter  Em  1018 m  distance light travels in a century 
peta  P  1015  petasecond  Ps  1015 s  30 million years 
tera  T  1012  terawatt  TW  1012 W  powerful laser output 
giga  G  109  gigahertz  GHz  109 Hz  a microwave frequency 
mega  M  106  megacurie  MCi  106 Ci  high radioactivity 
kilo  k  103  kilometer  km  103 m  about 6/10 mile 
hecto  h  102  hectoliter  hL  102 L  26 gallons 
deka  da  101  dekagram  dag  101 g  teaspoon of butter 
—  —  100 (=1)  
deci  d  101  deciliter  dL  101 L  less than half a soda 
centi  c  102  centimeter  cm  102 m  fingertip thickness 
milli  m  103  millimeter  mm  103 m  flea at its shoulders 
micro  µ  106  micrometer  µm  106 m  detail in microscope 
nano  n  109  nanogram  ng  109 g  small speck of dust 
pico  p  1012  picofarad  pF  1012 F  small capacitor in radio 
femto  f  1015  femtometer  fm  1015 m  size of a proton 
atto  a  1018  attosecond  as  1018 s  time light crosses an atom 
See other derived units and their physical quantity below
QUATITY  DERIVATION  UNIT 
Area  Length × breadth  M^{2} 
Volume  Length × breadth x height  M^{3} 
Density  Mass/volume  Kgm^{3} 
Velocity  Displacement/time  Ms^{1} 
Acceleration  change in velocity/time  Ms^{2} 
Weight  Mass x acceleration due gravity  Newton (N) 
Momentum  Mass x velocity  Newton second (Ns) 
Pressure  Force/ area  Pascal or Nm^{2} 
Energy or work  Force X distance  Joule (j) or Ns 
Power  Work/time  Watt (w) or js^{1} Or NmS^{1} 
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